Over the past 20 years the role of the occupational health nurse has changed from that of an industrial nurse dealing with accidents and illness at work and providing a treatment and first-aid service to a role that encompasses all aspects of preventative health care as a specialist community public health nurse.
Occupational health is preventative rather than curative and proactive rather than reactive.
The role of the occupational health nurse must change in line with globalization, the changing economy, changing patterns of employment, changing attitudes and changing health risks (Kenny, 1999).
The role of the specialist occupational health nurse incorporates:
- implementing comprehensive pro-active occupational health and safety strategy to prevent occupational injury and disease
- promotion of health and work ability, by focusing on non-occupational, workplace preventable conditions that, whilst not caused directly by work, may affect the employees ability to maintain attendance or performance at work, through a comprehensive workplace health promotion strategy
- improving environmental health management, by reducing risk to the working population and the wider community
- contributing to the wider public health agenda.
National oversight and coordination of training for occupational health nurses is provided by the Nursing and Midwifery Council (NMC), which maintains a register of specialist community and public health nurses. Nurses with a qualification in occupational health are distinguished as specialists in ‘Community and Public Health - OH’.
See: RCN careers resource.
See also further information from the Faculty Of Occupational Health Nursing who work with occupational health nurses and physicians as well as industry to set standards and recognise the skills and qualifications needed to become an OH professional.
interested in a career in this area of nursing, any of the following would be
- experience of working in accident and
emergency and/or practice nursing
- public health, infection control
- counselling, psychological health
- learning about relevant legislation
- management of sickness absence
- development of manual handling policies and
rehabilitation of staff with chronic conditions
- undertaking a role as an RCN safety
Knowledge of health
promotion and education is desirable as well as an understanding of health and
safety issues, health screening, stress management and basic first aid.
Membership of the RCN public health nursing forum
can provide a useful means of keeping up to date with current developments. Attending
occupational health conferences also provides the opportunity to network with
nurses working within this field.
occupational health nurses
occupational health nurses undertake an additional period of formal study in
occupational health, leading to a recognised specialist degree in occupational
health nursing. For more information, see: Specialist community public health nursing (SCPHN)
Educating occupational health nurses
Public Health England has launched guidance for educating occupational health nurses. As well as setting out the recommended approach for nurse education going forward, this document incorporates ‘general prompts’ for HEIs and lecturers in assessing and refreshing occupational health nursing educational programmes. It also lists the necessary ‘theory, knowledge and skills’ that must be included into education programmes to ensure excellent, high quality occupational health services.
For more information, see: Educating occupational health nurses. An approach to align education with a service vision for occupational health nurses.
The role of the
specialist occupational health nurse incorporates:
- implementing comprehensive pro-active
occupational health and safety strategy to prevent occupational injury and
- promotion of health and work ability, by
focusing on non-occupational, workplace preventable conditions that,
whilst not caused directly by work, may affect the employees ability to
maintain attendance or performance at work, through a comprehensive
workplace health promotion strategy
- improving environmental health management, by
reducing risk to the working population and the wider community
- contributing to the wider public health agenda.
and coordination of training for occupational health nurses is provided by the
Nursing and Midwifery Council (NMC), which maintains a register of specialist community and
public health nurses. Nurses with a qualification in occupational
health are distinguished as specialists in – ‘Community and Public Health –
See: RCN careers resource.
Occupational health nursing: clinical issues
Assessment on fitness to drive
The DVLA have guidance which is aimed at all health care professionals designed to help support enquiries from the general public about driving with various medical conditions. It regularly updated and includes condition specific and general guidance, see: Assessing fitness to drive: guide for medical professionals.
The assessment of fitness to practice guidance advises:
If you think the patient may be engaging in an activity where they pose a very real risk of danger to the public or themselves, such as the patient driving when they are not fit to drive, but you are not sure whether you should act, ask yourself:
- what might the outcome be in the short or longer term if I do not raise my concern?
- how could I justify why I did not raise the concern?
If you decide to proceed, you should:
- first advise the patient that they are unfit to engage in the activity in question and give the reasons
- advise the patient to tell the appropriate authority
- put your advice in writing to the patient, if appropriate
- keep a copy of any correspondence to the patient on the patient record.
The DVLA Medical assistant team can receive notification in confidence provided by healthcare professionals.
Contact details: Email - firstname.lastname@example.org, Telephone - 01792 782337, Address - Medical Business Support D7 West DVLA Swansea SA6 7JL.
The guidance from the GMC on Confidentiality: patients' fitness to drive and reporting concerns to the DVLA or DVA may also be of use.
Fit for work
Fit for Work is a Government funded initiative designed to support people in work with health conditions and help with sickness absence. The campaign recognises that being in work contributes significantly to good health. The longer someone is off sick, the harder it is for them to get back to work. Being out of work for long periods of time is damaging to social and financial well-being as well as health. Fit for Work is an advice line service providing support for GPs, employers and employees to help those who are in work and off sick. For England, Wales and Scotland, see: England & Wales and Scotland.
In Northern Ireland, the Northern Ireland Civil Service Centre for workplace health has launched the Health & Wellbeing Programme with advice on managing attendance and fitness for work, and it also provides advice on fitness for work. There is also advice from Invest NI.
Occupational health nurses provide a variety of vaccines including staff flu vaccinations. The RCN has further information on vaccination and immunisation.
Occupational Health Schemes (OHS) are exempt from the restrictions that apply to; general sales list medicines, pharmacy medicines and prescription only medicines. (An OHS is a scheme in which a person, in the course of a business carried on by him, provides facilities for employees for the treatment or prevention of disease.)
NICE guidance Patient Group Directions (PGD) 2013 recommends that PGDs are not used when exemptions in legislation allow medicine supply and/or administration without the need for a PGD. The scope of this exemption in legislation is much broader than the use of PGDs. There is further information on the NHS Specialist Pharmacy Services website; see PGDs and Occupational Health Services and When to use a PGD.
In the case of prescription only medicines, the person supplying or administering the medicines, if not a doctor, must be a registered nurse. They must act in accordance with the written instructions of a doctor setting out the circumstances in which the medicine is to be used under the OHS.
See the BMA: The occupational physician. The BMA guidance for Occupational Physicians has useful information on prescribing in occupational health settings and an example template for a ‘Specimen operating policy/written instruction’ in the appendix 6.
The Specialist Pharmacy Service have developed guidance on written instruction for the administration of seasonal flu vaccination. This includes a template written instruction for the seasonal flu vaccine.
Statutory medical examinations
The Faculty of Occupational Medicine (FOM) and the Health and Safety Executive (HSE) have further advice but nurses are not able to carry out statutory medical examinations where it is specified that these must be done by a medical practitioner, for example for asbestos and ionising radiation medicals.
Work and health
It is recognised that being in work has a positive impact on health and wellbeing. It is important to appropriately manage sickness and absence and to support people to return to work as soon as possible.